The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft that orbit Earth close to each other.
Occasionally the satellites encounter a shock wave that forms when a fast wind of charged particles
from the Sun slams into Earth's magnetic field . (Image: APS/Carin Cain)
In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS ( Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. These results have been published in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters.
Most visible matter in the Universe consists of ionized gas known as plasma. Shock waves in plasmas form around planets, stars and supernovas. Shocks in space plasma are efficient particle accelerators. Shocks in supernova explosions are thought to be the main source of cosmic rays - very high energy charged particles from space.
The details on how particles are accelerated and how plasma is heated at shocks in space plasmas are still unclear. The shock waves are usually considered planar surfaces but numerical simulations have previously showed that ripples can form on the surface of shock waves. The elusive ripples have been hard to study in space due to their small size and high speed.
A new study, by researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in Uppsala, shows that these ripples do in fact exist in the Earth's bow shock. The study uses the newly launched MMS mission to study the shock in unprecedented detail.
"With the new MMS spacecraft we can, for the first time, resolve the structure of the bow shock at these small scales," says Andreas Johlander, PhD student at IRF, who led the study.
The results are of importance to the broader field of astrophysics where these ripples are thought to play an important role in accelerating particles to very high energies. The structure of the shock wave also determine how plasma is deflected and heated at shocks.
"These direct observations of shock ripples in a space plasma allow us to characterize the physical properties of the ripples. This brings us one step closer to understanding how shocks can produce cosmic rays," says Andreas Johlander.
The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) is a governmental research institute which conducts research and postgraduate education in atmospheric physics, space physics and space technology. Measurements are made in the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere and around other planets with the help of ground-based equipment (including radar), stratospheric balloons and satellites. IRF was established (as Kiruna Geophysical Observatory) in 1957 and its first satellite instrument was launched in 1968. The head office is in Kiruna (geographic coordinates 67.84° N, 20.41° E) and IRF also has offices in Umeå, Uppsala and Lund.
Institutet för rymdfysik, IRF, är ett statligt forskningsinstitut under Utbildningsdepartementet. IRF bedriver grundforskning och forskarutbildning i rymdfysik, atmosfärsfysik och rymdteknik. Mätningar görs i atmosfären, jonosfären, magnetosfären och runt andra planeter med hjälp av ballonger, markbaserad utrustning (bl a radar) och satelliter. För närvarande har IRF instrument ombord på satelliter i bana runt tre planeter, jorden, Mars och Saturnus. IRF har ca 100 anställda och bedriver verksamhet i Kiruna (huvudkontoret), Umeå, Uppsala och Lund.