The Moon is a surprisingly strong source of hydrogen atoms. That is the surprise discovery from the Swedish Institute of Space Physic's instrument SARA on board the Indian Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter. It gives scientists an interesting new way to study both the Moon and any other airless bodies in the solar system.
According to conventional wisdom, the lunar surface is a loose collection of irregular dust grains. Any particle that hits it should bounce between the grains and be absorbed. But the new results clearly show that one out of every five protons incoming from the solar wind rebounds from the Moon's surface. In the process, the proton joins with an electron to become an atom of hydrogen.
"We didn't expect to see this at all," says Stas Barabash, Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), who is the European Principal Investigator for the SARA (Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer) instrument, which made the discovery.
"It's an amazing discovery for the planetary scientific community in general and for lunar science in particular," says Anil Bhardwaj, who is the Indian Principal Investigator from the Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum. SARA was one of three instruments that the European Space Agency (ESA) contributed to Chandrayaan-1, the lunar orbiter that completed its mission in August 2009, and was built jointly by scientific groups from Sweden, India, Japan and Switzerland.
Although Barabash and his colleagues do not know what is causing the Moon to act as a hydrogen mirror, the discovery paves the way for a new type of picture to be made of the lunar surface. This is because the hydrogen atoms shoot off with speeds of around 200 km/s and so escape without being deflected by the Moon's weak gravity. Also, because hydrogen is electrically neutral, it is not diverted by the magnetic fields in space. So the atoms fly in straight lines from the surface of the Moon, just like photons of light. In principle, each detection can be traced back to its origin and an image of the surface can be made. The areas that emit most hydrogen will show up the brightest.
Barabash and his team are currently analysing the data to see if they can make such pictures, in order to look for so-called lunar magnetic anomalies. Whilst the Moon does not generate a global magnetic field, some lunar rocks are magnetised. These generate magnetic bubbles that deflect incoming protons away into surrounding regions. In a hydrogen image, the magnetic rocks will therefore appear dark.
The incoming protons are part of the solar wind, a constant stream of particles given off by the Sun. They collide with every celestial object in the Solar System but are usually stopped by the object's atmosphere. On objects without such a natural shield, for example asteroids or the planet Mercury, the solar wind reaches the ground. The SARA team expects that these objects too will reflect many of the incoming protons back into space as hydrogen atoms.
This knowledge provides timely information for the scientists and engineers who are readying ESA's BepiColombo mission to Mercury. The spacecraft will be carrying two similar instruments to SARA and may find that the inner-most planet is reflecting more hydrogen than the Moon because the solar wind is more concentrated closer to the Sun. In the meantime, the SARA team is combing the lunar data for insight, and puzzling over just why the Moon is so good at reflecting hydrogen.
The SARA instrument was built jointly by the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden; the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum, India; University of Bern, Switzerland; and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara, Japan.
"Extremely high reflection of solar wind protons as neutral hydrogen atoms from regolith in space" by Martin Wieser, Stas Barabash, Yoshifumi Futaana, Mats Holmström, Anil Bhardwaj, R. Sridharan, M.B. Dhanya, Peter Wurz, Audrey Schaufelberger, Kazushi Asamura will be published in a forthcoming issue of Planetary and Space Science and is now available online: Planetary and Space Science (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.1210 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.012
The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) is a governmental research institute which conducts research and postgraduate education in atmospheric physics, space physics and space technology. Measurements are made in the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere and around other planets with the help of ground-based equipment (including radar), stratospheric balloons and satellites. IRF was established (as Kiruna Geophysical Observatory) in 1957 and its first satellite instrument was launched in 1968. The head office is in Kiruna (geographic coordinates 67.84° N, 20.41° E) and IRF also has offices in Umeå, Uppsala and Lund.
Institutet för rymdfysik, IRF, är ett statligt forskningsinstitut under Utbildningsdepartementet. IRF bedriver grundforskning och forskarutbildning i rymdfysik, atmosfärsfysik och rymdteknik. Mätningar görs i atmosfären, jonosfären, magnetosfären och runt andra planeter med hjälp av ballonger, markbaserad utrustning (bl a radar) och satelliter. För närvarande har IRF instrument ombord på satelliter i bana runt tre planeter, jorden, Mars och Saturnus. IRF har ca 100 anställda och bedriver verksamhet i Kiruna (huvudkontoret), Umeå, Uppsala och Lund.